The Sultan, as mentioned above, is the longstanding ruler of Agrabah. Living in the luxurious palace alongside Jasmine and her pet tiger, Rajah, the Sultan spends a majority of his time ensuring tradition and stability within the kingdom remains intact—so much so, that he can occasionally neglect other means such as the emotional well-being of his daughter, though he loves her immensely.
At the start of the film, the Sultan mentions having a council, with his royal vizier and most trusted councilman being the mysterious Jafar. Unbeknownst to the Sultan for a majority of the film, Jafar plots to overtake the kingdom, and has continuously used the power of his hypnotic snake staff to force the Sultan into abiding his wishes when simple persuasion isn't enough.
The Sultan's wife died during Jasmine's childhood. According to the Sultan, she wasn't "nearly so picky" when it came to finding a suitor, herself, but their relationship was a strong one, nonetheless Disney.
The Sultan is generally very childish and pompous, but extremely kind at his core. Soft-spoken and gentle, he is a direct foil to the fiery and no-nonsense Jasmine.
Though he dearly loves Jasmine, he is initially frustrated due to her constant rejection of potential suitors and pushes her to choose a husband. However, he explains his actions regarding the subject as arising from a need to make certain that Jasmine is taken care of and provided for, as he is starting to get up in years.
The Sultan also prides himself on being an excellent judge of character. However, contrary to his own belief, he is rather gullible, as he does not realize that Jafar is untrustworthy until Aladdin points out Jafar's plots. Aside from his childish mind, he has shown to be a worthy ruler, knowing when to put his power into good use and can be strict and forceful on rare occasions. Throughout the television series, he is shown to be a well-respected, diplomatic leader, and takes his position as Agrabah's ruler quite seriously, in spite of his quirks.
In the wake of Jasmine's birthday, princes from foreign kingdoms visit the Sultan's palace to seek Jasmine's hand in marriage, as she must be married to a prince according to law. Upon the disastrous visit of Prince Achmed, the Sultan chastises Jasmine on her refusal to choose a husband. Jasmine responds by expressing her disparity over the situation, wanting to experience more important moments such as finally leaving the palace, and building connections with friends, rather than marriage for political gain. The Sultan solemnly admits that the law is second to his motivation for finding Jasmine a husband; he reveals that he wants his daughter to be provided for once he passes away, but even this isn't enough to soften Jasmine towards the unjust practice.
Later on, the Sultan finds Jasmine in her room very upset. She tells her father that she ran away to escape the suitor business, and that during her adventure, she met and befriended a commoner who seems to have been killed on Jafar's orders. The Sultan reprimands Jafar for his actions, but the situation is quickly dropped by the former in order to focus on finding Jasmine a suitor.
Upon meeting 'Prince Ali Ababwa' (the disguised Aladdin), the Sultan is instantly impressed by the pomp and grandeur of his entrance, so much so that he quite forgets that he has not invited nor indeed ever heard of any Prince Ali. He allows "Prince Ali" to remain at the palace while he tries to court Jasmine. The Sultan is likely unconcerned with the anonymity of Prince Ali, nor is worried about details such as his native country as he is glad to have a concerned suitor after Jasmine chased all the other princes away. He also confides to Jafar that he could stay a free man as "maybe you will not have to marry Jasmine after all". This unknowingly angered Jafar as he lusted after Jasmine and wanted her for his wife, and saw Prince Ali as a potential threat and rival.
Later, Jafar attempts to kill Aladdin to prevent him from marrying Jasmine. Jafar then hypnotizes the Sultan in ordering that Jasmine marry Jafar. However, this plan is foiled when Aladdin reappears, and reveals Jafar's treachery. The Sultan orders Jafar's arrest, but Jafar manages to escape. After seeing Aladdin and Jasmine together, he realizes that the two have fallen in love, and Jasmine confirms that she has chosen "Prince Ali" as her suitor. The Sultan is utterly delighted that Jasmine has finally chosen a suitor and without hesitation blesses their union. Delighted, the Sultan then decides to have Aladdn and Jasmine wed immediately while also deciding to have Aladdin become the new Sultan once they are married. However, unknown to either the Sultan or Jasmine, Aladdin was upset by the news as he felt guilty for lying to the kingdom of his true identity and became afraid of becoming Sultan.
The very next day, the Sultan announces Aladdin and Jasmine's engagement to the kingdom, but Jafar returns with the lamp and wishes to become Sultan. When the Sultan and Jasmine both refuse to bow to Jafar even as the sultan of Agrabah, Jafar makes his wish to become a sorcerer. He transforms the Sultan into a living marionette whom Iago takes out his anger about being force-fed dry crackers on. However, when Jafar is defeated, all returns to normal. When everything returns to normal, the Sultan overhears Aladdin telling Jasmine goodbye, as Jasmine can only marry a prince. Genie offers to rectify the situation by saying Aladdin has one more wish and that he should use it to be a prince again. Despite Genie's pleas that Aladdin will be losing a wonderful woman like Jasmine, Aladdin holds true to his earlier promise with Genie that only two wishes were for himself. Noting that Aladdin has proven his worth as far by defeating Jafar and freeing Genie, the Sultan decides to repeal the prince marriage law so that Jasmine can marry the man whom she deems worthy, Aladdin.
The Return of Jafar
In The Return of Jafar, the Sultan announces that he wants to make Aladdin his new grand vizier. However, he grows suspicious of Aladdin after he defends Iago, who used to work for Jafar, and commands him to watch the bird. When Jafar returns, he takes advantage of Iago's new position as an "ally" to Aladdin, and makes him suggest the Sultan and Aladdin to have a discussion in a place where they are ambushed by Jafar and Abis Mal. The Sultan is imprisoned along with Aladdin's friends, and Jafar uses his turban to frame Aladdin for his murder. He is later freed by the Genie who is then freed by Iago and saving Aladdin from getting beheaded by a tricked Razoul and is later seen at the end of the film, again requesting Aladdin to become his vizier but Aladdin turns down the Sultan's offer because he wishes to travel and see the world with Jasmine.
Aladdin and the King of Thieves
In Aladdin and the King of Thieves, the Sultan meets Aladdin's father, Cassim, not knowing he is the King of Thieves, and immediately accepts him. However, Razoul later reveals to the Sultan that Cassim is the King of Thieves and, with no other choice, the Sultan has Razoul incarcerate Cassim in the dungeon for life. After Aladdin helps Cassim escape the dungeon, and comes back to accept the consequences for his actions, the Sultan prepares to punish Aladdin in anger for freeing Cassim, but Genie and Jasmine come to his defense, stating that all he wanted was to give his father a second chance. The Sultan accepts his apology. At the end of the film, his wish of seeing Jasmine marrying someone comes true when she marries Aladdin.